Crystal Growth Mechanisms

Fundamental growth spiral on the {001} face of graphite
crystal from Wlotzkas Baken, western Namibia. The image
was taken by atomic force microscopy.

For reprints email John Rakovan at

Borkiewicz*, O., Rakovan, J., and Cahill, C. (2010) Time resolved in-situ studies of apatite formation pathways in aqueous solutions. American Mineralogist, 95:1224-1236.

Rakovan, J., M. Kitamura, and O, Tamada (2006) Sakura Ish: Mica pseudomorphs of complex cordierite-indialite intergrowths from Kameoka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Rocks & Minerals, 81, 284-292.

Rakovan, J. (2002) Growth and Surface Structure of Apatite. In: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological and Materials Importance, Kohn, M., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J.M. (eds). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Mineralogical Society of America. Washington, DC. V. 48, 51-86. Order.

Bosze, S. and Rakovan, J. (2002) Surface structure controlled sectoral zoning of the Rare Earth Elements in fluorite from Long Lake, N.Y. and Bingham, N.M. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 66, 997-1009.

Rakovan, J., and Jaszczak, J.A. (2002) Multiple length scale growth spirals on metamorphic graphite {001} surfaces studied by atomic force microscopy. American Mineralogist. 87, 17-24.

Brown, C.J., Rakovan, J., and Schoonen, M.A.A. (2000) Heavy minerals and sedimentary organic matter in Pleistocene and Cretaceous sediments on Long Island, New York, with emphasis on pyrite and marcasite in the Magothy aquifer: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4216, 22 p.

Reeder, R.J. and Rakovan, J. (1999) Surface structural controls on trace element incorporation
during crystal growth. In Growth, Dissolution and Pattern-formation in Geosystems, B. Jamtveitand P. Meakin (eds.) p. 143-162. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Rakovan, J., and Reeder, R.J. (1996) Intracrystalline Rare Earth Element distributions in apatite:
Surface structural influences on zoning during Growth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 4435-4445.

Rakovan, J., Schoonen, M., Tyrna, P., Nelson, D.O., and Reeder, R.J. (1995) Epitaxial
Overgrowths of Marcasite on Pyrite from the Tunnel and Reservoir Project Chicago, Illinois: Implications for Marcasite Growth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 343-346.

Rakovan, J., Mitcheltree, D.B., Benton, L., and Avella, S. (1995) Amethyst on milky quartz from
Hopkinton, Rhode Island. Mineralogical Record, 26, 83-89.

Rakovan, J., and Reeder, R.J. (1994) Differential incorporation of trace elements and
dissymmetrization in apatite: The role of surface structure during growth. American Mineralogist, 79, 892-903.

Rakovan, J. (2004) Growth Hillocks. Rocks & Minerals, 79, 415-417.

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