"Father of Botanical Science"
|Descriptive morphology of types of organs, relation of organ to organ, and of type of organ to type of organ. Described gross internal anatomiy of stems, roots, and leaves.||Recognized normal sequence of root, stem, branch, leaf, flower, fruit in trees. Plants are made up of bark (phloios), wood (zylon), and pith (metra), when pith is present.|
|1519 - 1603||Andrea
|Initiated idealistic morphology in studies on plant "souls".||Postulated canals for conduction.
Observed that roots lack pith.
|1635 - 1703||Robert Hooke
English mathematician & architect
|Examined many objects with newly invented magnifying lens. Micrographica. 1665.||Cell coined in reference to cavities in cork and charcoal.|
|1628 - 1694||Marcello
Italian physician and professor
|Searched independently of Grew for similarities between structures of animals and plants.||Discovered Spiral Vessels and Stomata.|
|1641 - 1712||Nehemia
"Founder of Plant Anatomy"
|Presented classification of
as consisting of two different "bodies" (woody parts, strings, and
vs. barques, piths, parenchymas, and pulps). Recognized vertical
and horizontal systems of tissues. Described secondary growth of
bark and wood.
The Anatomy of Vegetables Begun. 1672.
|"...Parenchyma of the Barque is much the same thing, as to its conformation, which the Froth of Beer or Eggs is, as a fluid..." Vessel coined in reference to spiral vessels.|
|1632 - 1723||Antony
|Described pitted vessels.|
|1700 - 1781||Du Hamel
|Coined Cambium in reference to gelatinous generative zone in the inner cortex.|
|Theorized that tissue is a homogeneous matrix filled with bubbles, as is rising dough.|
|1776 - 1854||Charles Francois Mirbel
|Elaborated Wolff theory. Theorized that new cells appear in a homogeneous matrix as cavities with openings between them for the passage of sap.|
|1766 - 1833||Kurt Sprengel||Opposed Mirbel's theory. Proposed new cells arise within the contents of old cells as small vesicles (starch grains?) that get larger by uptake of water.|
|1779 - 1864||Ludolph Christian Treviranus||Discovered vessels formed by disappearance of cross-walls between series of cells. Observed development of spiral thickenings in protoxylem.|
|1774 - 1850||Johann Jakob Bernhardi||Discovered annular thickenings in vessels. Observed primary wall binding annular and spiral thickenings together. Recognized that vessel elements don't metamorphize.|
|1766 - 1827||Johann Jakob Paul Moldenhawer||Demonstrated each cell had its own wall, so cavities are separated by two walls.||Developed maceration technique. Coined fibrovascular bundle (vascular bundle) for strands of fibers, vessels, and parenchyma.|
|1773 - 1858||Robert Brown||Discovered cell nucleus (1831)|
|1804 - 1840||Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen||Suggested new cell arise through cell division rather than free cell formation.|
|Hugo von Mohl||Proposed that the vacuolated body (primordial utricle) within the cell wall was the living component. Proposed cell wall thickening occurs by apposition.||Borrowed zoology term protoplasm in reference to cell contents. Described relation of primary and secondary cell wall layers and nature of pits. Demonstrated nature of cuticle, lenticels, cork. Demonstrated first vascular bundles that develop in stem connect with leaves.|
|1805 - 1880||Theodor Hartig||Discovered sieve tube and its perforated nature in phloem.|
|1804 - 1881||Matthias Jacob Schleiden||Studied protoplasm of plants.||Collaborated with Schwann in formation of|
|1810 - 1882||Theodor Schwann||Studied protoplasm of animals.||The Cell Theory (1838) there is one universal principle of development for the elementary parts of organisms, however different, and that this principle is the formation of cells|
|1817 - 1891||Wilhelm von Nageli||Studied ontogeny of apical meristems. Distinquished primary and secondary meristems. Proposed cell wall thickening occurs by intussusception.||Described development of vascular bundles from procambial strands. Applied terms xylem and phloem to different parts of vascular bundle.|
|1832 - 1891||Carl Sanio
Prussian school teacher
|Described how vascular cambium orignates and functions. Described secondary development of periderm.||Described details of bordered pits.|
|1822 - 1880||Johannes von Hanstein||Proposed histogen theory of apical meristem organization.||Dermatogen.
|1831 - 1888||Heinrich
Anton De Bary
|Demonstrated Hanstein's histogens could not be universally applied and lacked morphological value.|
|1832 - 1897||Julius von Sachs||Proposed first physiological classification of plant tissue that were derived from uniform meristem.||Epidermal. Fibrovascular. Fundametal.|
|Gottlieb Haberlandt||Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie. 1884. Grouped tissues according to functional systems, disregarding morphological classification and arrangements.|
|Schmidt||1924. Proposed method of apical organization on basis of planes of cell division.||Tunica. Corpus. Kappe.|
|Foster||1943. Proposed zones of growth description of gymnosperms apical meristems.||Apical Initials. Mantle Layer. Central Mother Cell Zone. Rib Meristems. Pith. Zone of Cambium-like Cells.|
|Clowes||1961. Described quiescent center in root apical meristems.|
Eames, A. J. and L. H. MacDaniels. 1925. An Introduction to Plant Anatomy. pp. 321 - 342. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. N.Y.